Importing User Photos to Office 365 in bulk for your company.

In a previous post, I showed how you could update one user’s photo for their Outlook and AD profiles via PowerShell. In this post, we will explore how to do this for your entire organization via PowerShell to Office365.

NOTE: I have not tested the scripts as I do not have enough mailboxes in my O365 tenant along with not using a ‘.’ in my alias. If the scripts are incorrect, please inform me with the correction and I will update accordingly.

Please make sure that your photos are reviewed before posting, and try to keep the file size of the photos to a minimum. In Office 365, there exists a limitation for the user photo not to be more than 10 KB in size, but I will show you how to get around that limitation.

Having a user photo for each of your users is very beneficial as it personalizes each account to a face in the company. The user photos can be viewed in below locations:

  • Outlook Web Access
  • Contact Card
  • Thumbnail in emails
  • Outlook Client
  • Yammer
  • Lync Client
  • SharePoint (People Search / Newsfeed)

Steps to take:

  1. Remove the 10KB photo size limitation in Exchange Online
  2. Prepare a folder with all users photos
  3. Update the profile photos via a PowerShell cmdlet.

Connect to Exchange Online with the RPS Proxy Method to remove the 10K size limitation

NOTE: In the PowerShell cmdlet above, we connected using a different proxy method. This was to overwrite the limitation of uploading the images with size more than 10KB. Using the different proxy method (/?proxyMethod=RPS ) to connect to Office 365 in the above cmdlet accomplishes this.

Prepare a folder locally and place all the photos in that folder

Create a folder named C:/UserPics and make the filename of each photo be the username of that particular user. (i.e. llingerfelt.png)
The below script should be able account for aliases that have a ‘.’ in the id as well. (i.e. lance.lingerfelt)

NOTE: From my research, there is no set photo type that is required for the photo. My suggestion would be to keep the photos .png for size constraints while maintaining picture clarity.

Update the profile pictures via PowerShell

Create the following script and name it Photos-Update.ps1

Run Photos-Update.ps1 and the script should upload the photos to Office 365 and apply each photo to the corresponding user.

NOTE: If you’re still having some issues with the alias having a ‘.’ in the name, you can also configure the Photos-Update.ps1 script in this manner to get that working properly:

HAPPY SCRIPTING!
PLEASE COMMENT!

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REFERENCES:
How to import Office365 User photos over 10KB & without CSV in bulk

Unable to open settings from the Settings App in Windows Server 2016/2019

In Windows Server 2016/2019 you have been upgraded to the Windows 10 Desktop Experience GUI. So, in the new versions, you are directed to use the Gear Box in Windows to get to your settings. What was happening within the Settings is that I would choose a setting that calls on the control.exe file to open a Control Panel app. I would get the following error when attempting to do that function:

Permission Denied to Open a CPL Applet through control.exe

I immediately think it is a permissions issue. So I go to try to validate the permissions so that I could change them. Turns out, that due to it being a Windows System directory, I couldn’t modify the permissions without compromising directory security with NTFS permissions:

The options are all greyed out for the directory on purpose

Now, if I open Control Panel, Network Sharing Center, etc…, I was able to access the applets with no issues. This was just happening in the Settings Gear Box Application. So, I started looking around and found that there is a registry key that needs to be modified so that your Administrator account can open these settings apps through the Settings Application:

1) Launch the Registry Editor (regedit.exe)
2) Navigate to:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System

3) Change the value of FilterAdministratorToken (REG_DWORD) from 0 to 1 (If you don’t see that key, you can create it by right-clicking on any empty space from the right panel and select New > DWORD value, type the name and set the value to 1)
4) Reboot the computer and then it will be working fine.

I decided to create a Group Policy in AD to add this registry key so that it would propagate to all my 2016/2019 Servers:

1) Launch the Group Policy Manager
2) Create a new GPO and Link it to your Domain
3) Go to Computer Configuration > Preferences > Windows Settings > Registry > New Registry Key (DWORD)
4) Set the Action to “Replace”
5) Set the path as:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\System
6) Set the Key as FilterAdministratorToken
7) Set the Value as 1 (Decimal Format) and Save
8) Run gpupdate /force on your servers.
9) Schedule a Reboot of those servers for the change to truly take effect.

GPO Settings

After the reboot of the server, all the apps launched correctly from the Settings Application within Windows. I am going to research a little more to see why this is like that. If you have a comment, or more information, please feel free to post!

HAPPY TROUBLESHOOTING!
PLEASE COMMENT!

Hyper-V 2019 will NOT mount ISO from a network share.

Like most IT guys. They have a repository of their ISO images saved on a network share so that they can mount the ISO if needed on multiple machines. I recently switched to Hyper-V and have been having an issue with creating VMs and using my ISO from my network share to do so.
Hyper-V Manager available through RSAT doesn’t have an option to mount an ISO or capture a drive from a machine on which is running. Instead it gives you drives of the Hyper-V host, and that would of course require you to have an ISO or the disc itself present on the host. I didn’t want to do that. I would rather have my repository share available for that purpose to allow for all the drive space to be available on the Hyper-V host.

So, I would map a network drive with my ISOs. The mapping would succeed, but mapped drive (letter) will not be visible in Hyper-V manager when trying to mount an ISO. Okay, so next I tried mounting from UNC share directly, but that would also fail, with the message:
“‘VM’ failed to add device ‘Virtual CD/DVD Disk’” “User account does not have permission required to open attachment”.

hyperv1
Access Denied Error when trying to mount the ISO

It goes back to the constrained delegation requirement for the Hyper-V host accounts to be used to perform functions such as this. This has been a pain to say in the least, as I have also had issues with live migration with my machines not being clustered due to different hardware.

So, in researching, I found this blog post. It has helped me through this issue with mapping the shared folder with the ISOs.

The cause of the problem is that the Hyper-V is intended to run with VMM Library Server and to mount files from it, not any random share. To re-mediate this:

  • You need to assign full NTFS and share permissions to computer account of Hyper-V on a shared folder with ISO’s you want to mount.
  • In AD on the computer account of Hyper-V machine delegate specific service ‘cifs’ to the machine you want your ISO’s mounted from. Microsoft calls this constrained delegation.

Here is step by step procedure for the constrained delegation:

  1. Go to Active Directory Users and Computers
  2. Find the Hyper-V server computer account and open up its properties.
  3. Go to Delegation tab.
  4. Select Trust this computer for delegation to the specified services only radio button.
  5. Click the Add button.
  6. Click the Users or Computers… button.
  7. In the Add Services window, click Users or Computers and enter the computer account that will  act as a library server and click OK.
  8. Select the cifs Service Type and click OK.

The resulting setup should look something like this:

Constrained delegation
What the configuration should look like for constrained delegation

I added both the server that contained the ISO images and the server that I run my RSAT tools from just to be safe. I next rebooted the Hyper-V host (that is a requirement).
When the host rebooted, I was able to successfully create the VM.

Hopefully, this will also solve my issue with live migration between my hosts. I will have to test that again and will inform everyone here if that succeeds as well!

PLEASE COMMENT!
THANKS FOR READING!

References:
Hyper-V Server 2012 won’t mount ISO from a network share
Hyper-V authentication in Windows Server 2016 for managing remote Hyper-V servers through RSAT
Constrained Delegation

How to transfer FSMO Roles using PowerShell

A rare weekend post for me! HA! I am currently migrating my server environment from VMWare 6.7 to Server 2019 Hyper-V. I have a separate standalone box that I use for my VM backups and as a tertiary DC. Since I had to shut down my VMs in order to convert them, I needed to quickly move my FSMO roles from the DC Virtual Machine to the Standalone box so things would stay running.

I found this great article on how to do that quickly through PowerShell since it is a pain to go into ADUC, ADDT, and setup an MMC for the Schema snap-in.

When you create a domain, all FSMO roles assigned to the first domain controller in the forest by default. You can transfer FSMO roles from one DC to another both the Active Directory graphics snap-ins and the PowerShell command line. Moving FSMO roles using AD PowerShell has the following benefits:

  • You do not need to connect with a MMC snap-ins to the future role owner;
  • Transferring or seizing FSMO roles does not require a connection to the current or future role owner. You can run AD-PowerShell module cmdlets on a Windows Client or Server running RSAT Tools;
  • To seize the FSMO role (if the current owner is not available), it suffices to use an additional parameter -force.

Import the Active Directory Module Into PowerShell:

To get the current forest level FSMO role owners (Domain Naming Master and Schema Master roles) you can use the following PowerShell cmdlet:

To view domain-wide FSMO roles (Infrastructure Master, PDC Emulator and Relative Identifier Master roles):

Transfer FSMO Roles using PowerShell

To transfer FSMO roles between Active Directory domain controllers, we use the PowerShell cmdlet:
Move-ADDirectoryServerOperationMasterRole

To use the Move-ADDirectoryServerOperationMasterRole cmdlet, you must meet the following requirements:

  • There must be at least one DC with a version of Windows Server 2008 R2 or higher
  • PowerShell version 3.0 or newer
  • Active Directory module (2.0  or newer)

NOTE: Unlike the Ntdsutil.exe utility, the Move-ADDirectoryServerOperationMasteRole cmdlet can be performed from any domain computer to migrate the Operations Master roles if you have the appropriate rights (Domain admins and Enterprise Admins).

Import the AD Module:

I needed to move all the roles from one server to the other, so, I ran the following to do so:

NOTE: To simplify the command, you can replace the names of roles with numbers from 0 to 4. The correspondence of names and numbers is given in the table:

PDCEmulator0
RIDMaster1
InfrastructureMaster2
SchemaMaster3
DomainNamingMaster4

So, by having knowledge of these numbers, you can simplify your cmdlet:

NOTE: In the event that the current owner of one or all of the FSMO roles fails, the forced transfer of FSMO roles is performed by the same command, but with the -Force option. Also, after the FSMO roles have been seized, the domain controller from which the roles was seized should never be connected to the domain. You will need to preform a metadata cleanup of the Schema before even thinking about putting that failed server back into production.

Once completed, I ran the previous cmdlets of Get-ADForest and Get-ADDomain to verify that the FSMO roles moved to the destination server.

As of now, my conversion to Hyper-V is going smoothly, although it takes quite a bit of time to convert the hard disks. Thanks again!

HAPPY TROUBLESHOOTING! KEEP SCRIPTING!
PLEASE COMMENT!

Reference:
How To Transfer FSMO Roles Using PowerShell

Connect to all PowerShell Modules in O365 with one script

Let’s say you’re an admin that needs to connect to Office365 via PowerShell often. Now, there are many different websites or blogs that will show you how to connect to each session via PowerShell. That can cause a headache since you can end up having five different PowerShell sessions running in five different windows. You end up having to enter a username and password all those times, which can become time consuming.

I want to show you here how to combine all those sessions into one script where, if you’re security is tight enough on your computer, you don’t even have to enter credentials. This way, you can click on one icon and pull up all the O365 PowerShell commands that you’ll need to manage your organization.

First you need to download the following PowerShell Module Installation Files so that your PowerShell Database will have the correct modules installed:

Microsoft Online Service Sign-in Assistant for IT Professionals RTW
Windows Azure Active Directory Module for Windows PowerShell v2
SharePoint Online Management Shell
Skype for Business Online, Windows PowerShell Module

Next, we want to setup the CLI (Command Line Interface) to be too cool for school. I have learned it helps to have knowledge of how to customize the CLI window. You can do all of this in PowerShell ISE or Notepad, which ever you prefer. Here are the commands for the script that I use to setup the CLI:

Next, you want to set your Execution Policy and put in your credentials so that you won’t be prompted to enter the user credentials when you run the script.

NOTE: MAKE SURE YOU KEEP YOUR SCRIPT SAFE AS THE CREDENTIALS ARE VISIBLE WITHIN THE SCRIPT IN PLAIN TEXT!

You can, alternatively, set your script to prompt for credentials every time by using the following:

$LiveCred = Get-Credential

Here is that part of the script:

Now we get into the importing of the modules for each O365 service:

Get the MSOnline Module:

Connect to the MSOnline Service:

Connect to Azure AD PowerShell:

Connect to SharePoint Online PowerShell:
NOTE – MAKE SURE YOU CHANGE TO YOUR COMPANY NAME IN THE URL!!

Connect to Exchange Online PowerShell:

Connect to Skype For Business Online PowerShell:

Connect to the Security & Compliance PowerShell:
NOTE – This one I still get “Access Denied” when trying to connect. I have looked for an answer to that issue, but have not found one. Please comment with a link if you have an answer so that I can update this script!

Lastly, put in a note to show that the PS load is completed:

So Here is the final script in its entirety:

Now you can create your icon for your desktop so that you can easily access the script. I would save the script to your Scripts directory.

That will usually be C:\Users\’username’\Documents\WindowsPowerShell\Scripts or wherever directory you choose.

To start, right click the desktop and choose New > Shortcut
In the Target Field, enter the following for your PowerShell Shortcut, pointing to the path of your script:

C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -noexit -ExecutionPolicy Unrestricted -File “C:\Users\username\Documents\WindowsPowerShell\Scripts\ConnectO365All.ps1”

Click on the Advanced button and check the box: Run As Administrator
Under the General Tab, name your shortcut: (CompanyName) O365 All PowerShell
Click OK to save the shortcut to your desktop.

LAST BUT NOT LEAST, RUN THE FOLLOWING COMMAND BEFORE EXITING OR CLOSING YOUR POWERSHELL WINDOW. THIS WILL REMOVE ALL THE SESSIONS YOU’VE CONNECTED TO:

Get-PSSession | Remove-PSSession

HAPPY SCRIPTING!
LEARN, DO, LIVE!

References:
Connect to all O365 Services in one PowerShell Window
How to connect to all O365 Services through PowerShell
Connecting to Office 365 “Everything” via PowerShell

PowerDNS Script

I was compiling some scripts to be able to modify DNS records in my previous post. While browsing through different scripts in the TechNet Gallery, I came across the following Script that provides a menu, options, and different settings which really make it a great script to use if you do a lot of DNS Modification and want to do it through PowerShell.

Here is the link to the original script page, but I have updated and modified the script to include being able to add/remove DNS Zones as well.

The DNS Zone functions have not been tested as of yet. I still have to get on my server farm at home and run this. It will save time though with me having to switch servers when adding a bulk list of DNS zones for my website farm. Play with the script and let me know what you think!

Removing a DNS Record through Powershell

In most environments, an admin usually just jumps on the server that they need to work from and does their work from there. An example of this would be an admin working on an IIS Web server and needing to remove a DNS A record from DNS without having to logon to the DNS server itself so that they can quickly make their changes in IIS.

A quick way to do this would be to run the following ps1 script in PowerShell in order to be able to remove the record quickly:

Sample Output from the script.
Sample Output from the Script removing DNS A Record: test.ldlnet.local

Now this works for a single DNS A Record. If there are multiple IPs for the same DNS record, for example, test.ldlnet.local points to both 192.168.1.23 and 192.168.1.24, then you probably need to run the following script listed here to keep the script from failing with an error. I have also expanded the entries to help the input be more specific:

Output from RemoveDNSRecord.ps1 for removing DNS A Record test.ldlnet.local with IP of 192.168.1.24

I have found some other good scripts that I will post to the blog to help manage DNS records through PowerShell. This should get things started for now. Happy Troubleshooting!

MaxConcurrentAPI Script for Netlogon Issues

I get incidents from time to time that deal with Netlogon Service Issues. For example: Semaphore Waiters, Semaphore Timeouts, Semaphore Acquires, etc…

Here is a script I got from the Microsoft Gallery
In some enterprise environments the sheer volume of NTLM authentication can produce performance bottlenecks on servers. To help make the problem easier to detect, this PowerShell script was written.

Execution:

Now, I modified this script taking out the clear screen parameter so that I could be run against multiple servers. Place the script in your Scripts directory and name it CheckMaxConcurrentApiScript.ps1

First, in PowerShell, gather your list of servers:

Or

Next, run the command to run the ps1 against those servers:

Or

Sample Output:

DC03
Detection Time : 12/13/2018 7:56:16 PM
Problem Detected : False
Server Name : DC03
Server Role : Domain Controller
Domain Name : ldlnet.org
Operating System : Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise
Time Since Last Reboot : 4 days 22 hours
Current Effective MaxConcurrentApi Setting : 10
Suggested MaxConcurrentApi Setting (may be same as current) : 10
Current Threads in Use (Semaphore Holders) : 0
Clients Currently Waiting (Semaphore Waiters) : 0
Cumulative Client Timeouts (Semaphore Timeouts) : 17
Cumulative MaxConcurrentApi Thread Uses (Semaphore Acquires) : 3493999
Duration of Calls (Avg Semaphore Hold Time) : 0

EXCH02
Detection Time : 12/13/2018 8:00:53 PM
Problem Detected : False
Server Name : EXCH02
Server Role : Member Server
Domain Name : ldlnet.org
Operating System : Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard
Time Since Last Reboot : 4 days 23 hours
Current Effective MaxConcurrentApi Setting : 10
Suggested MaxConcurrentApi Setting (may be same as current) : 10
Current Threads in Use (Semaphore Holders) : 0
Clients Currently Waiting (Semaphore Waiters) : 0
Cumulative Client Timeouts (Semaphore Timeouts) : 570
Cumulative MaxConcurrentApi Thread Uses (Semaphore Acquires) : 1682257
Duration of Calls (Avg Semaphore Hold Time) : 0

Hopefully, this script will assist you with gathering the needed information to help you balance the netlogon load between your servers when needed in your environment.

HAPPY TROUBLESHOOTING!

Protected AD Groups and the problems they can cause accounts

I have run into this issue over the years with accounts being in the Domain Admins group and having issues running PowerShell cmdlets as well as not being able to connect to ActiveSync from a mobile device with the account.

These issues are due to the AdminSDHolder Template in AD and the SDProp Process that is run every 60 Minutes in AD.
This is explained in fantastic detail through the following Microsoft article: Protected Accounts & Groups In Active Directory

Here is an example of an issue that occurred in one of the environments that I was managing. A user was trying to run the following AD cmdlet in PowerShell on DC01:

The user got the following error when the cmdlet was executed:

Set-ADUser : Insufficient access rights to perform the operation
At line:1 char:1
+ Set-ADUser lancel -Server dc01.ldlnet.org -Replace @{title=”Senior O …
+ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+ CategoryInfo: NotSpecified: (lancel:ADUser) [Set-ADUser], ADException
+ FullyQualifiedErrorId : ActiveDirectoryServer:8344,Microsoft.ActiveDirectory.Management.Commands.SetADUser

The issue was that the admin account used to run the cmdlet was in the Domain Admins group and was not inheriting permissions per the AdminSDHolder template that was applied to the account:

I checked to see that the admin account was in a protected group:

I next went to the Security Tab > Advanced Button and saw that the Enable Inheritance button was visible:

I’ve circled where to look in the window.

This verifies that the account is protected due to being in the Domain Admins group. Now, there are two workarounds for this particular error that we were experiencing.

  1. Click the Enable Inheritance button. This will cause the permissions to be inherited temporarily. When SDProp is cycled again, the account will lose any inherited permissions and will be essentially “broken” again. This is not good if you’re going to be running cmdlets regularly to modify AD Accounts.
  2. The preferred method to work around this issue is to set the -Server parameter to point to a different DC than the one you are on. So, essentially, we tell the cmdlet to execute on DC02 when running the cmdlet from DC01.

Either method will allow the cmdlet to execute successfully and modify the object. You would think that Microsoft would have noticed this issue with running an admin cmdlet for Active Directory, but they have not fixed this issue as of yet nor do i think they plan to. I would just go with workaround number two and remain sane.

Another example of this Protected Group issue comes with an account in a Protected Group that has a mailbox not being able to connect to Exchange ActiveSync when setting up their mobile device.

  • You usually get a 500 error on the device that you cannot connect.
  • You will also see event 1053 in Event Viewer alluding to not having sufficient access to create the container for the user in AD.

Read this page for more information: Exchange ActiveSync Permissions Issue with Protected Groups

So, in your endeavors admins, keep this in mind when running into these types of problems. Happy Troubleshooting!